再说前卫镇

前卫是辽西走廊历史上建制较早的文明古镇,经历朝历代的更名改制,现为辽宁省绥中县前卫镇。因有一座世上独一无二的歪塔,而知名度高于国内多个同名乡镇,加上渊源的历史和特殊的地理位置,更加闻名中外。

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前卫地处辽西走廊西南端,曾是关外军事重镇唐贞观十年(公元636年)名为瑞州;到辽代改为来宾县;金代改为宗州明代改为广宁前屯卫。据史料记载,明代初期取消了州,县建制,京师各地都设有卫,所,卫下辖千户所和百户所。卫,所是明代的军事防务体制,其建制比州小,比县大,是军政合一的机构,长官称指挥使。广宁前屯卫是山海关外五大屯兵城之一,是关外25卫之一,史称关外第一卫,辖城内东,南,西,北,中和中前(今绥中县前所镇),中后(今绥中县绥中镇)两个千户所及盐厂,铁厂两个百户所

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明代前屯卫城图

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明代前屯卫官印,印文是“广宁前屯卫指挥使司印”

明洪武二十六年(1393),都指挥使曹毅当政时,在原瑞州旧址建筑前屯卫城。城里驻扎军队,小部分屯田,大部分驻防,军饷全部由屯田收入支付明正统。年间(1436 1497),前屯卫城经备御官毕恭等人先后修缮,设城门3座:东门称崇里(东关),南门称迎恩(南关),西门称宁武(西关);北侧修有上帝庙全卫户口12000多人,曾设有备御公署,安察兵备分司,镇府司等军事机构明崇祯十六年(1643),前屯卫被清军攻破并占领。

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前屯卫以南是一马平川的耕田,约10多公里既渤海湾;东有由北经南的燕山余脉;西有源自大横流和龙潭沟,流入渤海弯的石河;以北约4公里即丘陵,约15公里即辽西著名的三女峰(三山)。可谓东有山,南有道,西有河,北有靠,是个绝好的风水宝地。

传说清初年间,朝廷拟将前屯卫设为与天津卫同等级别的辖区,比现在的省府地位还要高。但后来又被放弃了,其原因也是出在风水上,一是古城以北的三女峰,是三体合一的山峰,从前屯卫望去,中间有巨大的缺口,这一天然特点是风水大忌,说它是不可靠的,永远成不了大气候。二是古城西门外的石河,其河床清砂卵石积淀深厚,夏季雨水多时水源充足,雨大时易发山洪,泄洪极快,故被称为“炮仗水”,春秋旱季时河水渗进砂石,河床干枯,故被称为漏水河,意为财源外泄,也是风水大忌。

上述两个风水问题,断送了前屯卫的前途,古城随之失去了昔日的风采,政治地位也逐年降低,不但没能等同于天津卫,连原有的卫也没有保住,直至清光绪年间(公元1902年)设置绥中县,前卫镇归绥中县管辖至今。

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XX《绥中老照片》In the book, taken in the 1970s, only a pile of loess appeared. In the media and on the Internet, I also saw the words "avant-garde is a Tucheng". In fact, it is not true. The avant-garde ancient city is filled with loess. The inner wall, the outer wall and the horse road are all made of large bricks and paved. It is a complete and solid military ancient city. The disappearance of the ancient city is closely related to the rise and fall of the former defenders. Perhaps it is the baptism of war, and it may be more man-made destruction. The big blue bricks on the ancient city disappeared, and even the loess in the heart of the wall was gone. The ancient city site became a flat land without any traces.

In the 50s and 60s of the last century, the large bricks were always seen on the walls and walls of the old houses around the avant-garde town. There are whole, half, and the old people say that it is the inner wall of the ancient city and the bricks on the outer wall. There are also large bricks that are as hard as stones. The old man said that it is a steel brick for paving roads. Those bricks don’t know how many times they have been used repeatedly by locals. After the popularization of Beijing cottages in the 1980s, the change of building materials and the improvement of the quality of houses, the large blocks of bricks were almost extinct in the avant-garde town.

When the water was launched in 1959, the ancient city site on the southeast side of Qianwei Town was the highest point on one side, and the moat (original site) on the east side had been dull. Hundreds of thousands of victims, including the author's family, crowded the rectangular loess bag of the east and west.

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In the fall of 1968, the second production team of the Guta Brigade was to store the sweet potato seeds, and arranged for the members to dig the mantle in the ancient city site. The author is one of the excavators. We found that the loess there was very solid. Although the mantle was dug up like a tunnel, the soil layer did not collapse, and it was stronger than the natural soil. When cleaning the side of the house, the silver ornaments that the ancients had fallen were also found.

xx古城被完全摧毁,甚至没有看到破碎的墙壁;被摧毁后,他们一次又一次地被清理干净,现在他们很干净。遗憾的是,这位着名的前卫,即使是一张旧照片也没有流传,只有高耸的塔楼,仍然可以留下一些传说。

作者简介:隐藏钟,1952年出生于绥中的前卫人士。